Shotgun Terminology

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Shotgun Terminology:

Action - the moving parts that allow you to load, fire and unload your shotgun.
Barrel Selector - determines which barrel of a double barrel gun you will fire first.
Blacking/Blueing - the blue coloration applied to protect gun barrels.
Bore - the interior diameter of a gun barrel, which will vary according to the gun's size and intended use.
Box-Lock - a type of gun action, often recognizable by its squared appearance.
Breech - the end of the barrel nearest to the stock.
Break Open - in a hinge type gun, where the barrels are dropped open and clear of the action, exposing the chambers to view.
Butt - the rear of the shoulder end of the gun's stock.
Comb - the side of the stock that fits against your cheek.
Chamber - the part of the action, at the breech end of the barrel, into which the shot shell is placed.
Choke - the degree of narrowing or constriction of the bore at the muzzle end of the barrel. Intended to increase the effective range of the gun.
Ejector - the mechanism on shotguns by which spent shot cases are automatically ejected from the gun when it is opened after firing.
Forearm - the part of the stock that lies under the barrel.
Full Choke - the tightest constriction or narrowing of the bore, producing the greatest effective range.
Grip - the narrow portion of the stock held with the trigger hand.
Gauge - the term used to describe the interior diameter of the bore. The smaller the gauge number the larger the bore size.
Hinge - a type of action in which a hinge mechanism separates the barrel from the standing breech block, providing access to the chamber.
Improved Cylinder - least constricted or narrowed choke causing shot pattern to widen relatively quickly.
Modified Choke - moderate constriction or narrowing of the bore.
Muzzle - the end of the barrel from which the shot exits.
Over-and-Under - a two barreled shotgun with one barrel placed over the other.
Pump - a type of action that loads and ejects shells by "pumping" the forearm of the stock back and forth
Safety - a safety device that, in the "on" position, prevents the gun from firing. In many field guns the safety is automatically engaged when the gun is opened; in other guns, particularly competition grades, the safety must be manually opened.
Semi Automatic - a type of action in which gas from a burning gunpowder in the shell automatically ejects the spent shell that loads another.
Shot - round projectiles, usually of lead or steel.
Shot Pattern - the concentration of a shot measured in a circle at a given range, usually 30 to 40 yards.
Side-by-Side - a shotgun with two barrels sitting side by side.
Stock - the "handle" of the shotgun, the part held to the shoulder, comprising the butt, comb, grip and forearm.
Shotshell or Shell - the ammunition fired by shotguns, consisting of five components: the case, primer, powder charge, wad, and shot.
Trigger - finger- pulled lever——single, double and release——that drives the firing point forward and fires the gun.

Source: Black's Wing & Clay